A colonoscope is a
long flexible tube that permits visualization of the lining of the large
bowel utilizing a video monitor. The instrument is inserted via the rectum
and guided through the length of the colon. If the doctor sees a suspicious
area, a biopsy can be done to make a diagnosis. Polyps can also be removed
by passage of a snare or biopsy forceps (depending upon the size of the
REASONS FOR COLONOSCOPY
Colonoscopy is a valuable
tool for the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases of the large intestine.
Indications for this procedure include:
· the detection and removal of polyps, surveillance for new polyps
in individuals with a past history of polyps or cancer of the colon
· those at risk for the development of colon polyps or cancer (such
as individuals with a family history of colon cancer)
· assessment of abnormalities of the large bowel detected on a
· rectal bleeding
· changes in bowel habits
· inflammatory bowel disease
· therapeutic intervention such as in the setting of rectal bleeding,
strictures of the colon, or abnormal
· distention of the large bowl
· abdominal pain
During the course
of the examination, a polyp may be found. Polyps are abnormal growths
of tissue which vary in size from a tiny dot to several inches. If your
doctor feels that removal of the polyp is indicated, he will pass a wire
loop or snare through the colonoscope and sever the attachment of the
polyp from the intestinal wall by means of an electrical current. You
should feel no pain during removal of the polyp. Polyps are usually removed
because they can cause rectal bleeding, potentially grow larger and develop
into cancerous growths, or contain cancer. Although the majority of polyps
are benign (non-cancerous), a small percentage may contain an area of
cancer in them or may develop into cancer. Removal of colon polyps, therefore
is an important means of prevention and cure of colon cancer which is
the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States.
for Nulytely prep
for Fleets Phosphosoda prep
will be provided to you regarding cleansing the bowel in anticipation
of the colonoscopy examination. It is very important that the instructions
be followed as outlined in order to insure a well prepared colon which
will facilitate the colonoscopy.
Please bring a list of medications you currently take, the dosage of these
drugs, and any allergies you have to medications. If you are taking aspirin,
coumadin, or "blood thinners”, please notify your doctor as
the use of these drugs may need to be modified or discontinued temporarily.
A companion must accompany you to the examination because you will be
given medication (s) to sedate you during the procedure. You will feel
drowsy and consequently you will need someone to take you home since driving
an automobile is not allowed after the procedure. Even though you may
not feel tired, your judgment and reflexes may not be normal.
A small catheter for intravenous (IV) medicines will be placed in an arm
vein prior to the procedure. Sedating medicine will be injected through
this catheter that will make you relaxed and sleepy. You will be placed
in a comfortable position on your left side and the doctor will examine
the rectum gently with a lubricated gloved finger. The colonoscope will
then be placed into your rectum and advanced to permit examination of
the colon. You may feel some cramping or gas from air that is introduced
during the procedure although air can be suctioned from the colon during
the examination. There may also be some discomfort as the instrument negotiates
turns or bends In the colon. You may be placed into a different position
during the examination (such as on your back) in order to facilitate passage
of the instrument through the entire large bowel. The nurse who assists
the doctor during this procedure may also compress the abdomen with their
hand in order to reduce looping of the colonoscope and facilitate passage
of the instrument through the colon.
The examination usually
takes approximately 30 minutes to complete, however, more or less time
may be utilized depending upon the specific colon anatomy and whether
biopsies, polyp (s) removal, or specific intervention is indicated.
You will be kept in
the endoscopy recovery area until most of the effects of the medication
have worn off (30 - 60 minutes). You may feel somewhat bloated after the
examination because of air that was introduced to perform the examination.
You will be able to resume your diet after the examination but you may
receive special dietary guidelines based upon the findings of the colonoscopy
or if a polyp is removed. The findings of the examination will be reviewed
with you and additional recommendations, if necessary will be discussed.
RISKS OF COLONOSCOPY
Colonoscopy and polypectomy
are safe and are associated with very low risk. One possible complication
is perforation in which a tear through the wall of the bowel may allow
leakage of intestinal fluids. This complication usually requires surgery
for treatment. Bleeding may occur from the site of biopsy or polyp removal.
It is usually minor and stops on its own or can be controlled by cauterization
(application of an electrical current) through the colonoscope. Rarely
transfusions or surgery is required. Irritation of a vein at the site
where medications were administered may also occur. Drug reactions may
also occur despite careful review of an individual's medical history.
Finally, like any test, pathology may be missed in a small number of cases
leading to an error in diagnosis.